The main source of nutrition for vertebrate neurons is glucose. Neurons, like other cells in the body, require energy to carry out their functions. They cannot store glucose like other cells, so they rely on a constant supply of glucose from the bloodstream.
Glucose is converted into energy by a process called cellular respiration, which occurs in the mitochondria of cells. This process produces adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the main energy source for the cells.
In addition to glucose, neurons also require oxygen to carry out cellular respiration and produce ATP. Oxygen is transported to the neurons by the blood, which is why proper blood flow and oxygenation are essential for the health and function of the nervous system.
Neurons also require other micronutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and essential fatty acids to function properly. These micronutrients are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including the formation and maintenance of the myelin sheath, which surrounds and protect the neurons.
It’s important to note that a chronic lack of glucose or oxygen can lead to damage or death of neurons, and a poor diet or conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease can increase the risk of such damage.